The mechanisms for mutations are complex to explain. Basically, all creatures have a specific set of genes dedicated to the morphology of a specific animal. These genes are called homeotic genes. These genes are usually compiled co-linearly in a sequence called the homeobox. Genes have various mechanisms that lead to physical expression, in this case 6 legs or 2 heads. The mechanisms involve enhancers, activators, start codons, stop codons, repressor proteins, and other chemical factors. These all contribute to the proper expression of a gene. If any of these sequences or proteins are affected by a mutagen, expression is altered and what is achieved is a different morphology of an animal such as a cow.
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