The Earth is composed mostly of the mantle and the core. The mantle is classified as two different layers, the upper and lower. The upper mantle has Olivine (an important rock), compounds with silicon dioxide, and a substance called Peridotite. Next is the lower mantle, which is more solid than the upper mantle. The core is also broken down into two layers. The outer core is extremely hot and under a lot of pressure. The inner core is under even more pressure, and it is where the most dense, most compact, heaviest matter is found.
“Earth’s solid mass is about 32% iron, 30% oxygen, 15% silicon, 14% magnesium, 3% sulfur, 2% nickel, 1.5% calcium, and 1.4% aluminum. Much of the iron and nickel are in the planetary core, which is 89% iron and 6% nickel. The atmosphere consists of 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, with traces of other gases including carbon dioxide (0.3%).”
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