Acid rain is made up of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) that has reacted with materials that are already present in the atmosphere like water and oxygen to form an acidic combination of precipitation. If acid rain were to be filtered it would be these harmful substances, SO2 and NOx, that would be removed to make the precipitation clean again.
One thing to keep in mind about acids is that you cannot simply filter out the acid without taking it out of solution first. So, more likely you would neutralize it first by adding sodium hydroxide until the ph was neutral. Then, you would evaporate off the water to see what compounds were left behind. The sulfate ions would combine with the sodium to form salts while the hydrogen ions would combine with the hydroxide ions to form water that would be evaporated away.
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