Petroleum is found in rock that was once old sea beds, basically marine growth + a few million years. Due to the shift of the continents and the geography of the middle east, that entire section of continent was once underwater. That’s why 60% of the world’s oil reserve is in the Middle East.
This has been answered at least a dozen times previously. Pauleen’s answer is not quite complete – being underwater is not enough to cause all that oil to occur there; if that was all there was to it, everywhere on earth would have 60% of the world’s oil, which is impossible. It is because of a long series of lucky accidents of geology. See the previous answers linked below.
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