As cosmic dust came together to form the Earth, it did so in an uneven manner. This lack of symmetry caused an initial rotation. Since the Earth was then (and now) floating in a vacuum, with no force to stop the initial rotation, it has persisted throughout the Earth’s history and up to this present day.
Earth rotates because of leftover momentum from the solar nebula that all of the planets and the Sun formed within. The solar nebula collapsed when a supernova sent a shock through a cold cloud of molecular hydrogen. The solar nebula is defined as: the rotating flattened cloud of gas and dust from which the sun and the rest of the bodies in the solar system formed, about 4.56 × 109 years ago. Each molecule in the cloud had its own momentum, and as they came together, their momentums added up, and needed to be conserved. This set the solar nebula spinning, and created the planetary disk. As the planetary disk flattened out, each of the planets clustered together from gravity. Over time they accumulated more and more material. And once again, the rotation of the planet was caused by the addition of all the momentum of the particles that came together. This is why all of the planets (except Venus) rotate in the same direction.
The Earth’s rotation is an effect still acting on the earth from the time it was formed from the solar nebula. The molecules in the nebula had momentum from the collapse of a supernova that set the nebula spinning. Since space is a vacuum, there is no friction to now stop or even slow the earth’s rotation.
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