Brighter lights might mean that the stars are closer to earth. If a star is closer, it will seem brighter. Some people also enjoy astronomy and find constellations in the sky. Most of these are attributed to Greek gods and goddesses.
You can also tell the age, size, temperature and chemical composition of a star from its color and brightness. Astronomers use a Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram to determine facts about stars from the properties they observe through telescopes.
Example of an H-R diagram:
If the light of a star wiggles side to side, we can also tell that there is a planet or other non-stellar object orbiting that star.
We can tell several things such as their size, age, brightness, and temperature. Based on all of these factors, the stars can be easily categorized as detailed above. Looking at the H-R diagram, you will also notice a pattern stars follow throughout their lifetimes, starting out bright and small until they expand, cool, and condense into white dwarves. From their light, we get the majority of information about a star.
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