What is B.F. Skinners most famous experiment?

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    He has one experiment that is more famous than the others, and that’s his examination of superstition in the pigeon.  However, his early experiments led to his philosophy of behaviorism and the creation of the idea of operant conditioning, and both ideas are much more influential than any of his experiments.

    Here’s a good summation of that pigeon experiment:

    One of Skinner’s most famous and interesting experiments examined the formation of superstition in one of his favorite experimental animals, the pigeon. Skinner placed a series of hungry pigeons in a cage attached to an automatic mechanism that delivered food to the pigeon “at regular intervals with no reference whatsoever to the bird’s behavior”. He discovered that the pigeons associated the delivery of the food with whatever chance actions they had been performing as it was delivered, and that they continued to perform the same actions:

     

    One bird was conditioned to turn counter-clockwise about the cage, making two or three turns between reinforcements. Another repeatedly thrust its head into one of the upper corners of the cage. A third developed a ‘tossing’ response, as if placing its head beneath an invisible bar and lifting it repeatedly. Two birds developed a pendulum motion of the head and body, in which the head was extended forward and swung from right to left with a sharp movement followed by a somewhat slower return. (“‘Superstition’ in the Pigeon”, B.F. Skinner, Journal of Experimental Psychology #38, 1947 [1])

    Skinner suggested that the pigeons believed that they were influencing the automatic mechanism with their “rituals” and that the experiment also shed light on human behavior:

     

    The experiment might be said to demonstrate a sort of superstition. The bird behaves as if there were a causal relation between its behavior and the presentation of food, although such a relation is lacking. There are many analogies in human behavior. Rituals for changing one’s luck at cards are good examples. A few accidental connections between a ritual and favorable consequences suffice to set up and maintain the behavior in spite of many unreinforced instances. The bowler who has released a ball down the alley but continues to behave as if he were controlling it by twisting and turning his arm and shoulder is another case in point. These behaviors have, of course, no real effect upon one’s luck or upon a ball half way down an alley, just as in the present case the food would appear as often if the pigeon did nothing — or, more strictly speaking, did
    something else. (Ibid.)
    –this was taken from the article in the first citation.
    For more information on B.F. Skinner, check out this: 
    http://www.sntp.net/behaviorism/skinner.htm
    and this:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B._F._Skinner
    and this:
    http://www.bfskinner.org/BFSkinner/Home.html
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