This is a tricky question that people have been trying to answer for decades, especially since the institutionalization of food aid with PL 480 in 1954. Despite the best efforts of food aid organizations, world hunger still persists. The best systems involve establishing farmer independence, appropriate crop choices (for the area and for the needs of the people), and drought-resistent strains and techniques.
The biggest problem plaguing starving people today is not a lack of food (the world produces more than enough food to feed all its people), but rather chronic poverty. People simply cannot afford the food they need to survive. Social protections are vital in eliminating poverty, so is fair trade, the forgiveness of debt, improving infrastructure, and phasing out food aid programs that breed dependence and farmer disenfranchisement. Chronic poverty is a structural problem (social, economic, political) that requires a structural solution. In order to alleviate world hunger, major institutions need to be altered in order to allow for everyone to prosper.
In the meantime, there are some great organizations that are working to alleviate malnutrition and hunger throughout the world that do not contribute to the problems caused by food aid. I worked for Action Against Hunger in New York and learned that their long-term and short-term approach to hunger is the best way to alleviate hunger on the small scale. It involved working with the local Ministries of Health to institute better farming practices, irrigation, planting more nutrient-rich foods, and implementing a comprehensive plan that covered health, water, food security, and nutrition.
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