The most basic is simply looking for oil or gas seeping out of the ground or underwater craters. Majority of exploration requires various technology. The land is surveyed using gravity, magnetic, and seismic reflection methods. The former is based on slight variations in Earth’s gravity caused by changes in density of the rock (such as cavities) and measured with gravitometers. Magnetometers can be used to detect changes in mineral composition. And the seismic method works by checking the time it takes for an artificially created seismic wave to return to surface or by comparing measurements taken by seismometers in different locations.
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