The female anglerfish is much larger than its male counterpart. The female is actually what we think of when we think about anglerfish (the protrusion above its mouth like a fishing pole, the big scary mouth), while the male is, essentially, small and parasitic. When one of the tiny males finds a female, he grabs onto her with his teeth and, eventually, “the male physically fuses with the female, connecting to her skin and bloodstream and losing his eyes and all his internal organs except the testes”. One female can carry multiple males.
The female Hawaiian gardner spider is much larger than the male, and many species of frogs, including African dwarf frogs, feature large females. Female largemouth bass are also much larger than the males (http://www.ehow.com/how_6559436_tell-male-largemouth-bass-female.html).
Examples of animals in which female members are larger than their male counterparts are insects, spiders, many fish, birds of prey and certain mammals such as the spotted hyena. A specific example is a species of spider called Argiope appensa, in which the female is dramatically larger than the male.
There are many snakes where the female is larger than the male. In North America this includes many of the common snakes we see regularly, including garter snakes (Thamnophis) and water snakes (Nerodia). The female snake is larger because she must have room for the eggs or live offspring to grow inside of her body. At times the males are just 1/3rd the size of the female.
Other animals where this occurs includes many insects (walking sticks are a great example) and many types of fishes.
Female praying mantises are generally larger than males.
Female anglerfish, spiders, insects, amphibians, fish, bats, birds of prey, and snakes are typically larger than males. This may have to do with the fact that females need more energy for reproduction (carrying, giving birth, and caring for offspring). It may also be a survival adaptation. Because males and females are different sizes, they can occupy different niches. This means they may be able to hunt different prey in order to survive and ehance the overall survival of their species.
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