Some chemicals skip solid to liquid and go straight to a gas form. A liquid can be taken past its freezing point and remain liquid or “super-cooled liquid”. Also, liquid molecules are just as densely packed as a solid’s but they are much more susceptible to movement or vibration causing them to move around and over one another. This is opposed to a solid where molecules are all packed tightly and immobile.
Here’s a cool video showing water freezing very quickly; a pan of boiling water is thrown into -45F air.
Animals in certain habitats have to deal with freezing temperatures to survive. These animals are broken up into two categories: freeze-avoidant and freeze-tolerant. Freeze-tolerant animals,like the wood frog or the Alpine Weta, in effect freeze themselves before the temperature does. When water freezes, it expands and crystallizes, posing significant threat to the integrity of the body. The Weta have a protein in their bodies that can induce crystallization beforehand, thereby controlling where the crystals form and to what extend, protecting key organs. Weta ice cube in the evening, live Weta in the morning. Weird stuff.
You can lower the freezing point and increase the boiling point of water by adding salt. Salted ice water is a good way to quickly chill drinks, since it is colder than 32F but still liquid.
Slightly off topic, but rather interesting:
Absolute zero (zero degrees Kelvin) only exists in theory as the coldest ultimate temperature. It is demonstrated in thermodynamics by the total absence of molecular movement. Even in the farthest reaches of space, there is still some heat being generated through radiation.
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