One of the most recent movements for conflict resolution has been Declaration of Independence of the Republic of South Sudan on July 09, 2011. The Republic of South Sudan was created to end the conflict between Sudanese of Arab decent and that of Non-Arab decent in Sudan’s Darfur Region. The conflict reached such a point of violence and forced displacement (resulting in starvation and disease spread) that in September of 2004 Colin Powell declared the actions of the Sudanese government and its guerilla military “genocide.” It became clear that the two ethnic groups could not peacefully coexist in the same nation.
Though the secession of South Sudan was voted for by the people of Sudan, it was pressure from the UN Security Council that helped to initiate the possibility. Because the RSS is still politically unstable with the possibility of violence re-igniting always on the cusp, the UN developed the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS) to help facilitate the transition. The UN will keep the organization there for at least one year to complete a disarmament, police any further acts of violence, and help strengthen in the infrastructure of the RSS.
There have also been important environmental treaties and accords including the Montreal Protocol that banned CFCs (chloroflourocarbons) that deplete the ozone layer. On the issue of climate change, the UN created the Kyoto Protocol to begin the process of lowering greenhouse gas emissions around the world. The Copenhagen Accord was created two years ago to compile specific action steps that countries around would take to address climate change. The UN is actively working on successors to these agreements through the next UN climate talks this December in Africa and through the Rio+20 conference next June in Brazil.
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