1. Effective tailings management. Mine tailings are the mineral and chemical byproducts of mining operations. These range from relatively benign compounds to extremely harmful compounds, like sulfuric acid. Most can be prevented from entering the watershed by holding them in ponds, or chemically processing them on site to reduce their harm.
2. Mine reclamation. Mines, especially open pit mines, destroy enormous amounts of space and can have lasting impacts for decades. After resources have been extracted, the mines can be covered over and relandscaped to once again create habitable ecosystems.
I think developing and implementing a comprehensive and long term waste management plan and conducting water, air monitoring to make sure that everything is normal or acceptable are some of the most important things companies can do. Environmental justice is always an issue that mining face, so companies can be more proactive in making sure that impacts on nearby communities are considered and mitigated before starting the operations. Community involvement would be key to accomplishing this. I also found a link containing an exhaustive list of best management practices that companies can take to mitigate environmental impacts of mining, which might give you more specific answers.
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