What are the pros and cons on urbanization … write it point form
Vertical building, leaving more open space for wildlife, farms, recreation, etc.
Efficiency in transportation — everything is close, so walking, biking and public transportation are made feasible
Efficiency in water and electricity consumption — because lots of people live and work in one building, utlity supply is streamlined
All food must be transported from external sources, since there’s no farms inside the city (this means more packaging waste as well as greater fuel consumption)
All waste must be transported out of the city and deposited in land elsewhere
High concentrations of vehicles, industry and people create pockets of dense pollution, which can cause health issues, such as infectious disease spreading and asthma from air pollution.
Cities frequently harbor a culture of convenience and excess, meaning excessive use of energy resources and excessive waste.
To build on maddie‘s excellent answer, I would like to add that urban planners are trying to build more environmentally friendly cities. One way to do this (and increase efficiency in transportation at the same time) is to build residences on top of businesses so that a larger percentage of people can walk to work, or at least walk to their grocery stores.
I personally believe that humanity would fare best if all residences were six stories high or more, had solar panels on top, and were surrounded by a vegetable garden that was maintained by one of more of the residents. This would cut down on having to transport food and waste.
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