The problems vary with respect to what non-native plant or animal has been introduced, but some common issues include the loss of habitat, food and prey of native species, cross-breeding and disease transferal. Non-native species can disrupt an ecosystem significanly, causing one type of plant or animal to die off or become endangered, which causes further destruction to the ecosystem when plants or animals that depend on the dead or endangered species to eat, reproduce, etc., begin to suffer. Researchers at Cornell University have estimated that 98 percent of the American diet is non-native to North America.
Columbia University has a list of 95 species that have been introduced to the eastern United States here: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/cerc/danoff-burg/invasion_bio/inv_spp_summ/invbio_plan_report_home.html.
In addition, if an introduced species out competes the current residents of an ecosystem, the changes can reorganize every aspect of the ecosystems complex interactions. There have been recorded instances of entire ecosystems shutting down because of the loss or addition of just a single species.
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