What are the physiological differences between fresh- and saltwater animals?



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    It would take a very long time to list the physiological differences between every different species, or even just every family. All creatures are likely to have their own distinct differences, mammals won’t have the same distinctions as fish or crustaceans.

    For a specific example, I will discuss the physiological differences between salt and freshwater fish. According to the Scientific American, “Freshwater fish maintain the physiological mechanisms that permit them to concentrate salts within their bodies in a salt-deficient environment; marine fish, on the other hand, excrete excess salts in a hypertonic environment. Fish that live in both environments retain both mechanisms.” Salt is needed for survival, so freshwater fish need to keep as much as possible in their bodies, since they aren’t getting it from the water. Saltwater fish get too much salt from the water and they need a way to get rid of the excess. Fish that can live in both environments need to be able to adapt to rapid changes, so they maintain both functions.

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