A lithium-ion batter is a rechargeable battery which uses lithium compounds, as opposed to the element lithium which is less stable (and used in lithium batteries). Lithium-ion batteries are smaller and lighter than your average rechargeable battery; they also have higher energy density and can operate at higher voltages. They have a lower self discharge rate as well, so they last a lot longer than other rechargeable batteries.
However, lithium-ion batters are expensive, do not come in standard cell sizes, and need sophisticated and specific (depending on which battery you have) chargers to monitor the charging process.
Lithium-ion batteries are generally much lighter than other types of rechargeable batteries of the same size. The electrodes of a Lithium-ion battery are made of lightweight Lithium and Carbon. Lithium is a highly reactive element, which means that a lot of energy can be stored in its atomic bonds. This translates into a very high energy density for Lithium-ion batteries. Due to this high energy density, Lithium-ion batteries have become extremely popular in laptops, phones, an iPods.
Litium ion batteries are: “Batteries which use the lightest metal (lithium) and do not suffer from power loss when they are repeatedly charged. They originated as watch batteries and are seen as a potential alternative for electric cars.”
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