Climate describes the overall weather for a particular location. Depending largely on the latitude of the area, climate can also be affected by things like ground cover. Rain cycles, high and low pressure systems, vacinity to a coast or body of water, mountains, and many other geographic features all dramatically affect climate.
One of the most well-known effects of geography on climate is the difference between a coastal climate and an inland climate. In coastal areas, the ocean absorbs heat during the day and releases it at night, giving the region a much more uniform temperature. In inland areas, you may find higher temperatures during the day and colder temperatures during the night. This is another one of the many reasons why coastal areas are heavily populated: people like it when the temperature stays the same so they don’t have to carry around layers of extra clothing for the evening.
Like everyone else mentioned, climate is unique to a particular geographic location. For example, an area like Hawaii has a tropical climate, so the weather will usually always be rather warm and “tropical.” California is unique in the sense that it has many different types of climates in one location. The beach, mountains, and desert are all a few hours from eachother.
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