Environmental impacts of steel production take a number of forms and result from a number of factors in the life cycle of steel as a material. These range from the mining and processing of raw material inputs such as iron, coal and other minerals, the resources used in construction and operation of the steel plant itself, energy and water inputs in manufacturing, air and water emissions from the steelmaking process, transportation of the material to its destination, to finally the use, reuse, and ultimate disposal of the steel itself.
The major effects of steel production on the environment are dominated by the mining of natural resources, primarily iron ore and coal, and the high energy inputs for producing very large quantities of an important industrial material. See below for EPA resources on the iron and steel industry, and on ways of making and using steel more sustainably.
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