Effects of flooding on wildlife varies between species and largely depends on their level of mobility. Birds are often the least effected, they can usually flee the flooded area and nest elsewhere or reside in flooded area with limited adaptation. Many small land animals like rodents drown or get trapped in debris piles where they die. When flooding occurs in uninhabited low-lands which outside of populated areas, wildlife that escape the flooding may be driven towards communities where a whole new set of problems arise.
Flooding can have a very negative effect on aquatic ecosystems. When the water washes over the land, the runoff picks up large amounts of sediment, pesticides, and fertilizers that can alter the balance of the ecosystem drastically, even destroying some habitats. The pesticides are obviously poisonous and the fertilizers can cause harmful algae blooms which use up much of the oxygen in the water, leaving little for other organisms. Also, the sediment can block sunlight that plants need to survive, sometimes long enough to kill them.
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