To my knowledge, no there is no term that specifically characterizes a plant whose root system goes further horizontally than vertically. I can tell you that the structure of the root system says a lot about the plant and its environment.
A plant with the root system you described most likely exists in a climate with a lot of rainfall, the plant does not have to reach down deep into the ground to find stored water because of the abundance of surface water. Plants with deep roots are characteristic of dry climates because the plants must access groundwater to be consistently watered.
The closest distinction is the distinction between tap root systems and fibrous root systems. Tap root systems have one main root that grows vertically deeply into the ground. Fibrous root systems have mostly spread-out, horizontally branching roots. Most trees start out with tap roots and them develop fibrous root systems.
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