Most dams are built to control river flow, regulate flooding, produce hydroelectric power or all of the above. While there are various types of dams, flood control dams are generally your earth dams or “regular dams” as you referred to it. These dams are most often built from clay, sand, gravel, rock or concrete. Hydro dams on the other hand, also made of concrete, are extremely expensive to build, because they require hydropower facilities to power them. Power generators are placed inside the dams to control the water flow and produce power. The huge disadvantage to building this type of dam, is the hydropower facilities can drain the surrounding environment of valuable and iimited resources. Additionally, the structures obstruct fish migration and upset the natural river flow and temperature.
Cerainly. Many dams, probably most, are simple impoundment structures, quite small, that create small lakes or ponds for water supplies, mostly for ranching and farming.
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