See the many answers about subsistence agriculture. Generally such activity need not negatively impact soil, but you can have subsistence for large numbers, and such agriculture could indeed have a negative impact on sols if proper management practices are not applied. That would be the case even for small activities. You can’t grow nutrition-intensive crops on the same ground forever, even if it is supporting just one family. You either need to let it lie fallow, fertilize it, or some other enhancement. And lying fallow may not always be an option for subsistence.
As rigibson says, subsistence agriculture can be sustainable if practices like crop rotations are used. Rotation of crops with pasture re-deposits carbon into the soil. No till prcatices also dramatically reduce erosion and increase available carbon. No till practices also increase the soil microfauna such as worms which improve soil porosity in most soils. However, no till pracitices do need a lot of organic matter, (mulch) to ensure that plants have nutrients available. Predatory insects are also important for no till or minimal till because certain pests live in leaf litter layers.
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