You can find several answers, but here is a pretty good one that I discovered. Although it doesn’t cover everything:
“Hail, damaging winds, tornadoes, drought, excess moisture/flooding, grasshopper infestations, pest infestations (including certain fungal spores, insects, weeds, predators, and rodents), complaining neighbors about smells & noise pollution, livestock escaping enclosures, livestock getting sick and/or dieing, reportable diseases that occur in a farmer’s herd, debt, loans, no healthcare benefits, no paycheck bi-monthly or once a month only once a year, complacency around dangerous livsetock and machinery, no time for vacations or weekends-off, no bonus for salary, 99% of the time nobody will be available to help as hired labour, no such thing as an 8-hour work day, the list goes on. Also ever-increasing regulation, lack of consumer knowledge, ever-fewer numbers of farmers (young people continue to leave the farm — average age of a US farmer is now 57), over-production, misinformed activist groups, excessively hot or cold weather, input shortages and high prices, declining market value of crops (inflation-adjusted), and, yes, well, the list could still go on.”
The answer to this question depends on which farmers, in which part of the world. Environments are different, and the political systems that govern the farmers are also different. In general, some of the environmental problems include poor irrigation practices coupled with water availability and water rights; drought; poor soil nutrients; and unpredictable weather patterns that affect planting, harvesting, and crop destruction. In general, some of the political challenges include fertilizer and pesticide use; the hiring of migrant workers; global trade rules and regulations; mono-cropping and the rise of industrial agriculture; decreasing government subsidies; and increasing property taxes. Farming is a very complex issue with many current challenges.
I have attached a link to some books that deal with issues of food, farming, and food security. Some of them are better than others, but it will give you a direction to turn.
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