Once carbon dioxide is captured from industrial processes, there a couple options:
Geological Storage: directly injecting CO2 into underground formations, such as oil fields, gas fields, unmineable coal, capping bedrock, and also underground storage facilities are used. This method is susceptible to leakage potential and the hazards associated with confining high concentrations of toxic gas into storage facilities where it exists in it’s gaseous state for many years.
Ocean Storage: Directly injecting CO2 deep into ocean waters where it will ‘simply dissolve’ over time. This is a highly contested method due to our lack of knowledge of the rates of dilution of CO2 in water, and the effects on the water and wildlife. A case of leaking Lake-stored CO2 in Cameroon in 1986 caused the asphyxiation death of 1,700 people and large losses in livestock, questioning the safety of this method.
Mineral Storage: this may be the most promising, and environmentally viable option. It involved injecting CO2 into abundant formations of metal oxides, which when reacted with CO2 cause STABLE carbonates. Once the carbonates are formed, the re-release of CO2 is virtually impossible.
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