Theoretically it would be possible to induce global cooling through anthropogenic forces. Sulfur dioxide has essentially the opposite effect on global temperatures as greenhouse gasses do like CO2. Scientists have found that the sulfur dioxide released into the atmosphere when volcanoes erupt undergoes an atmospheric chemical reaction making sulfate aerosol. This absorbs sunlight and reflects it into space. This effectively cools the earth. Thus, releasing millions of tons of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere would theoretically cool the earth. Scientists are trying to engineer a new particle that could be placed high into the mesosphere, which would effect earth less and be more effective. Regardless, this is would be just another giant experiment with the earth without a control group.
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