This would be quite difficult to really quantify, since there are so many variables. Robots must be built (materials mined, transported, manufactured, maintained) and use electricity (burn coal, natural gas, etc. to generate) to operate. Humans use food (fertilizer, oil for tractors and food transport, etc.), burn oil to get to work, etc.
The primary reason for using robots has nothing whatever to do with environmental costs, either positive or negative, but with the actual cost of doing business. If manufacturers use robots rather than people, it is because it is cheaper for them to do so. No other significant reason.
This depends on what the workers whose jobs were replaced are doing instead. Assuming that the ex-workers, with different jobs or unemployed, are still consuming, then there’s a net negative environmental effect because machines were built.
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