Organic farming, which prohibits the use of pesticides, presents the challenge of preemptively preventing outbreaks in the population of insects and diseases that afflict crops. At controlled levels, some amount of insects feeding actually increases crop yield. Some methods of avoiding outbreaks are Corp Rotations, which is a system of diversification to avoid large clusters of the same plant growing close together, and Field Sanitation which involves cleaning residue from crops and burying diseased plant matter in the soil. There are many other techniques in use (see link below).
One problem that could easily arise from going organic is not because of pesticides but because of fertilizer. We have been mono-cropping and keeping everything alive with artificial fertilizer for so long that the soil they are growing in has been practically destroyed. So without the fertilizer in the soil, in some places, the soil may not even be able to support that amount of plants for a while.
Not necessarily. There are organic and natural alternatives to fertilizers and pesticides that can help organic farmers grow very nearly as much as regular farming. Typically, however, the organic farm is a much smaller operation, with less land and less of a demand for the product, and that is why less is produced.
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