One of the most extreme results will be that plants will absorb less carbon dioxide in a warmer climate, leaving the gas increasing the concentration in the atmosphere. Then, changes in temperature could only slightly or greatly impact the future of certain types of plants. For example, a plant that is sensitive to frost will not survive if it gets cold enough for a frost to hit. Changes in rainfall patterns could negatively impact plants as well, as the ecosystem is a delicate balance and slightly more or slightly less rain could make the area uninhabitable for the plant. Coastal species of plants will suffer as sea level rises and there is nowhere to retreat since human development and the sea will meet. Some plants will adapt to the changes and many will not survive. As a result, invasive species may flourish or more hardy species will take over.
At the bottom of this website page you can find a couple of examples of plants and how climate change will affect them: http://www.bgci.org/climate/climate_change_effects/
Like the other answer says, there are many negative effects on plants, and the severity would vary from one species to another. Currently, pine forests in British Columbia are being devastated by a beetle – over half the lodgepole pines are already destroyed – which would ordinarily be stopped by cold winters. But climate changes resulted in warmer temperatures as well as stronger winds that favor the beetle spread. Higher temperatures in many places also favor forest fires, especially if the trees are already weakened or killed by diseases or parasites. That results in release of more carbon dioxide, thus speeding up climate change even more.
In general, we can assume that the more resilient species will survive, and change their range along with the shifting and changing climate zones that will result from global warming. But many species with small range and very specific adaptations will likely go extinct in this extreme case of natural selection, especially the ones already endangered due to human activities.
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