Pretty much as tall as you can make it. They are looking to put vertical farms in cities, so it will be sort of a greenhouse skyscraper. This will also the farms to use greywater for irrigation and also help the local atmosphere.
Because there are many different methods of vertical farming, the limits on height vary. A system that uses soil, for example, caught behind some vertically oriented material, cannot be very tall because it quickly becomes very heavy. Systems without soils (hydroponics) can be taller, but even these become heavy as the irrigation system increases in material and complexity.
Indoor systems and outdoor systems also have different height potential. Plants growing on the outside of an external wall of a skyscraper, for example, would not and should not be allowed: any of the materials – including the plants themselves – could in the case of failure fall from great heights, making it a serious health and security concern.
There is also the question of efficiency. At some point, very tall vertical farms would require so much energy in caring for and harvesting the plants as to make them inefficient. Still, some people are trying it. Architects from SERA are planning a 250 foot-tall vertical garden on a Portland high-rise building. See link below for more information.
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