A lot, although I don’t think you can completely quantify it yet- we’re still feeling the results. The industrial revolution is really what pushed fossil fuels to the forefront, increased the population, and ultimately caused a lot of the more severe environmental problems that we suffered today. Without industrialization, we would still have problems, I don’t think anyone actually doubts that, but a lot of damage has been caused as a result.
Industrialization allowed for humans to harness the power of machines. This allowed us to extract, process, and subsequently destroy the natural world (and each other) at a much faster rate. It also allowed the human population to increase to insane proportions. Most of the increase today is based on the development of petroleum based nitrogen fertilizer which increases the availability of staple food crops. Industrialization has expanded civilization at the expense of the environment. The more advances in extractive, processing, or agricultural technology the faster the destruction occurs. That is why Anarchoprimitivist philosophers such as John Zerzan and Fredy Perlman advocate for a pre-industrial society with simple subsistence strategies.
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