I know the volcano was capped by a glacier which made it require a higher amount of pressure to erupt, but how much pressure had built up within the volcano before it erupted?
It doesn’t seem like there were any measurements of pressure on the volcano before it erupted. However, the fact that it was capped by a glacier does not necessarily mean that it had to have had a higher pressure. In fact, the disappearance of ice sheets from Icelandic volcanoes has often led to a greater pressure within them. For instance, one period of volcanic activity near the end of the last ice age was triggered by the retreat of an ice sheet that was more than 300 kilometers (186 miles) long! The effect retreating ice has on a volcano is generally determined by the shape of its magma chamber, with spherical and long horizontal magma chambers being more prone to erupt.
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