I’m assuming you’re referring to the underground fruits produced by fungi rather than the chocolate candy (which is named for its resemblance to them). There are hundreds of species producing truffles, but only some are consumed as food. The edibles include the following fungi in the genus Tuber: white truffle (Tuber magnatum), black truffle (Tuber melanosporum), Chinese truffle (Tuber sinensis), black summer truffle (Tuber aestivum/unicinatum). Other genera include Terfezia and Tirmania, called desert truffles, Elaphomyces – Hart’s truffles, and the Bohemian truffle (Pisolithus tinctorius).
It is hard to come by an exact number of different types of truffles, but there are at least dozens of varieties throughout the world. The different kinds can range from as small as a walnut to as large as an apple. Many look similar to and can easily be confused with mushrooms in the wild, but they are in fact different. Truffles grow about a foot underground with the roots of certain trees and require mild climates, making them difficult to find and harvest. Considered a delicacy, they are therefore one of the most expensive foods in the world.
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