There are 9 families of salamander. 8 of those families live in North America. This means that North America is home to more salamanders than any other continent in the world. The “Salamander Capital of the World” is known to be in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park.
There are 400 species of salamanders around the world and 130-150 species are found in North America. The southeastern part of the United Sates is home to the greatest diversity of salamanders. Unfortunately, because their habitats are being destroyed or tampered with, 11 species are endangered or threatened in the U.S. and the number could likely increase.
Interesting question. Taxonomy is not static and scientists are finding many cryptic species complexes where what we formerly thought was a single species is actually multiple distinct species that are difficult to distinguish. So the number is always is changing.
If I counted right, excluding subspecies, the North American Field Herp Association recognizes 313 distinct species in North America (Canada, US, Mexico). That number however is low because there are some species splits not yet recognized in their database.
This question should be moved to the amphibian section.
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