This is an interesting question, there’s no definitive answer. Arguments could made for areas of high population density followed by areas with no population, or a city based society. Conversely, arguments could be made for a spread out population where each person gets an equal tract of land, a society based off of farming and self-sufficiency. If we took every person in the world and spread them out evenly amongst all available land, the total population density would be roughly 45 persons per square kiliometer (6.8 billion/ 150 million square kilometers). However, if we subtract Antarctica, which is inhabitable, equal population density becomes about 50 people per square kilometer. Even this estimation is not accurate due to other geographic areas which cannot sustain large amounts of human life (deserts and mountains).
There are no studies which have determined optimal population density for the United States or the world, so your guess is as good as mine for how many people should dwell in a square mile.
The amount that lives on a square mile of land should be able to be supported by the natural resources of that given square mile. A population density which adheres to that rule is called the ecological optimum; ecological optimum would be a good goal for sustainable population density. But one thing is for sure, there are too many people on this planet.
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