It’s a fairly difficult question to answer, in that it all depends on what kind of lifestyle these people are demanding. If all people lived like Americans, the answer is quite a low number, as the typical American uses many more of our resources than someone living in poverty in other parts of the world. Even so, when using standards lower than Americans are used to, the Institute for Lifecycle Environmental Assessment states that a metric range of 1-3billion people is the sustainable population of our planet.
This site has a comparative chart of theories and studies done to ascertain the answer to your question, I found it very helpful in answering your question.
There is a scientist that actually drafted an equation to answer this exact question. His name is Paul R. Ehrlich and he created the IPAT equation. I = P * A * T
I = impact on the environment resulting from consumption
P is the population number
A is the consumption per capita (affluence)
T is the technology factor
it is a tricky equation because of the ever constant changing numbers however when plugged into a computer model it has created some interesting results. In 1994 he estimated that the world should be between 1.5-2 billion.
I usually don’t like wikipedia, however I am citing this article because of how well it is written and after a glance at the resources cited and available.
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