Well, “King Minos of Crete had the first flushing water closet recorded in history and that was over 2800 years ago.”
In terms of indoor plumbing as we know it today, it began in the 1800s.
As eloiselk said, one of the first toilets was in the Minoan Palace of Knossos on the island of Crete about 1700 B.C. (4000 years ago). The Palace featured a whole structure of distinct drainage systems that were placed beneath the flooring and emptied into stone sewers outside of the Palace.
The plumbing was made out of terra cotta piping and was nearly 1″ in diameter. There was hot and cold running water as well as a stream for fountains and faucets within the Palace.
Inside the Palace was what the world would come to know as the first flushing ‘water closet’ (aka the toilet) which had a seat made out of wood and a small tank in the back filled with water. Apparently this first toilet was lost among rubble and decay and it wasn’t until the 16th Century when Sir John Harington invented what he called a ‘washout closet’ (also a basic toilet) that more people began to recognize the invention of the toilet.
Two hundred years following Sir Harington’s washout closet, an Englishman, Alexander Cumming patented the very first in a series of the device that we call the toilet today. Others who would make version of the toilet included Doulton, Wedgwood, Shanks, and Twyford.
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