The archaeological record’s earliest lunar calendar dates to the Aurignacian Culture of Europe, c.32,000 B.C. They have been identified in cave art found in France and Germany. “The astronomer-priests of these late Upper Paleolithic Cultures understood mathematical sets, and the interplay between the moon annual cycle, ecliptic, solstice and seasonal changes on earth.” Many of these lunar calendars were made on small pieces of stone, bone or antler so that they could be easily carried on extended journeys such as long hunting trips and seasonal migrations.
In this country (US), and pretty much every country except Saudi Arabia, we actually use a Solar calendar. Other countries use lunar calendars that are adjusted by reference to the sun periodically. Formerly, the use of Lunar calendars was prevalent, however, and their use dates back to the 15th Century in England.
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