The growth rate of coral is depended on many things, including the pH of the local water environment, temperature, salinity and available nutrients for example. Additionally, the species of coral and morphology also play a part. Here are two examples of coral growth rates; Montastrea annularis grows between 0.06 and 1.23 cm per year while a branching type coral species Pocillopora eydouxi can grow anywhere from 2.1-3.9 cm per year. You can find out more about coral growth as it relates to climate change here http://www.eoearth.org/article/Coral_growth_and_climate_change
Well, keep in mind that corals are animals, not plants. They don’t “grow” over a specific time period, like a plant. They live for a while, but how long exactly depends on what kind of coral we’re talking about. Some live 5-10 years, although some brain coral colonies are as old as 400 years. An individual polyp may live a shorter lifespan than an entire colony.
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