It depends on the volcano and the intensity of the eruption. Ash from volcanoes can be seen as far as 22,000 square miles away from the eruption. Lahars (type of mudflow consisting of pyroclastic material and water) can flow up to 50 miles from the site.
Volcanic eruptions can potentially affect weather patterns around the entire globe, if they are large enough. For example the eruption of the volcano Tambora in Indonesia in 1815 spewed so much gas and dust into the atmosphere that sunlight was significantly blocked. This led to food shortages in Europe, cholera outbreak across Europe, and the “Year Without a Summer” in North America. Luckily such eruptions are few and far between, with only a handful being recorded in human history.
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