The hydrosphere is the whole of the water on earth: in oceans, on land, and beneath the surface. Climate has to do with temperature and precipitation, which means that the behavior of the hydrosphere is one of the factors of climate. Because of this, it might be more correct to say that the behavior of the hydrosphere determines climate, although climate would have an effect on ground and surface water.
Ocean behavior has a huge impact on climate because it absorbs solar energy and moves heat outwards from the equator. Movements of the ocean and changes in their capacity to hold heat effect precipitation patterns and can effect global temperature.
Climate, or long-term weather patterns, can determine the amount of precipitation that falls in an area which would impact the amount of available water in streams and groundwater.
The current trend of rising temperatures in the global climate may have a significant impact on the hydrosphere, since the temperature of water largely determines its physical characteristics and behavior. As the temperature rises, some changes we have seen in the hydrosphere are: the melting of polar ice caps, the expansion of ocean water (water expands as its temperature rises), changes in the evaporation/precipitation cycle, including decreased snowfall and increased rainfall, as well as more extreme precipitation events as a result of increased evaporation. The melting of polar ice and the expansion of ocean water both contribute to the rising sea level. The shift from snowfall to rainfall in certain areas has a significant impact on fresh water supplies, as it changes the quantity and distribution of water available from melting snow and can cause flooding due to an overabundance of liquid water in the spring. Increased evaporation as a result of climate change has also been blamed for instances of extreme drought.
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