The skin cells on your body naturally die and grow back. When you have sunburn it is only the top 1-3 layers (depending on the severity of the burn) of skin that are damaged, so eventually the skin naturally dies, sluffs off, and is regrown as healthy cells again. The body does this naturally, so there aren’t really any ways to treat sunburn to speed up the process of healing, so the only treatments just alleviate the symptoms of sunburns.
As an addendum to the answer above, the body also helps the cells that have been damaged below the upper layer of skin through the inflammatory response. Fluid comes in to cushion the damage cells, hence the fact that sunburns sometimes get swollen.
The body heals through the natural ability of skin cells to quickly reproduce. The damaged cells are originally cushioned by layers of fluids and nutrients that represent the body’s immediate inflammatory response to damage sustained. Then, gradually, new skin cells are created and the damaged (read: burned) cells shed just like other cells. One of the reason excessive sunburning leads to cancer is because repairing a sunburn means that skin cells have to reproduce at a faster rate over a shorter period of time to correct the sun damage (as an emergency response) and thus there is an ever greater chance of the cell division errors that can lead to the formation of cancerous growths.
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