Wave energy has been a working concept since the 1890s. The basic idea is to harness some of the power the wave has received from wind rushing over the surface of it. Based on wave speed, wave speed, wavelength, and water density, a wave creates energy by moving fixed objects on the water’s surface up and down. The movement of the sea level up and down from waves is what creates the energy, although there are problems with efficiency in these models.
Wave energy is harnessed trough various methods. Wave energy primarily takes the surface wave movement and transforms it into energy. One method involves using terminator devices that are placed perpendicular to the wave direction. One example is the oscillating water column, where water partially flows through a device which then uses the moving water to push air up and down through a piston and generating energy hydraulically. Another device is a point absorber, where there are floating buoys that are attached to the seafloor via motors. The attached buoys drive electric or hydraulic motors and produce energy. Another device is the attenuator. These lie parallel to the wave direction and produce energy when the different heights of wave cause flexing in its segments and produces energy. The last method is over-topping. Waves are captured is bounded areas and the resulting water height is higher than the surrounding. Water is then released and the gravity-driven water drives turbines for energy production.
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