When water is polluted with oil it can kill the mammals and birds that live on the water. Birds of prey and scavenger birds may eat the dead bodies and die from ingesting the oil covering them.
Water pollution can affect birds of prey through the process of bioaccumulation, where chemicals build up in an organism due to the chemicals present in their food. A zooplankton with toxins in its body from the pollution is eaten by a small fish, which is then eaten by a bird of prey. A good example of a chemical that can become a hazard through bioaccumulation is mercury. This is why large fish are often affected; their food webs are larger than smaller fish.
The effect could also be direct. birds need to drink water too. When the birds drink polluted water, they directly are ingesting it. This, on-top of the polluted fish they eat, can cause a pretty unhealthy diet.
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