Historically, the navy has participated in 23 above ground nuclear tests at Bikini Atoll in the 1950s. The harmful effects of this radiation were observed in the populace and flora and fauna. The navy also uses nuclear powered submarines and aircraft carriers. These both require refinement of radioactive particles which re-enter the ecosystem as nuclear waste.
The Navy has been criticized in more recent years for their impact on marine mammals through their use of sonar to train sailors and marines. It has been noted that the use of sonar can cause changes in behavior, affect communication, and induce confusion. The are currently undergoing an investigation to see if the future use of sonar will be allow or if the affects on these important, some endangered, animals is too much.
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