Crop rotation is a farming methods used by farmers. It is a good way to prevent pest invasion, keep soils healthy, and maintain healthy crops. The way is works is that two or more crops are rotated through different sections of a farm, they could stay in the same place for one or two seasons, but not often more. Then the crops will switch places, or the field may be left empty for wild grasses to grow (called a fallow period). This prevents pests that are drawn to certain crops from becoming out of hand. It also helps the soil because each crop uses particular nutrients, so switching them helps maintain a good balance. This is different from many of the large, conventional mono-crop (single crop) farming system, and is often used by organic or natural farmers.
Crop rotation is still used in non-organic modern ag, the single biggest example is that farmers throughout the midwest rotate soybeans and corn (often two years corn, one of soybeans), the rotation of corn and soybeans. For a long time I know southern cotton farmers rotated their cotton with peanuts, but that one is less common today.
Another example is sugar beet farming. Because sugar beets are highly vulnerable to a viral disease called rhizomania, farmers who grow them generally rotate several other crops through a field between planting sugar beets to avoid the virus passing from one years crop to the next.
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