Alveoli are the smallest structures of the lungs which serve as the barrier between the air and blood; this is where the exchange of gases takes place. The alveoli are comprised of capillaries (small blood vessels) and are so thin that oxygen you take in through inhalation can diffuse through and be carried to your body’s cells. By the same process of diffusion, carbon dioxide exits the blood, enters the lungs, and is exhaled out of the body.
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