There are two important ways underwater plants reproduce. The first way is similar to land plants reproduce. Underwater plants such as water lilies will extend roots into the water but produce flowers above the water that can disperse pollen by air, water, or insects. The second way is for the underwater plant to release games (reproductive cells) into the water where they will have to encounter another reproductive structure by chance in order to fertilization to occur.
Aquatic plants can reproduce either sexually or asexually. Of the two, asexual reproduction is the most common. This can happen through budding, in which case the buds can break off or remain attached to the parent plant; runners, or shoots from a parent plant that become new plants; or spores.
True-flowering plants reproduce by hydrophily (pollination by water). This type of abiotic pollination only accounts for 2% of abiotically pollinating species (which includes only 20% of pollinating plants). Marine plants that are true-flowering are mangroves and seagrasses. Green algae, however, is not true-flowering, and reproduces with spores, both sexually and asexually in a process known as Alternation of Generations. Basically, it takes two generations to reproduce. For a detailed explanation, please see http://www.ehow.com/how-does_4574307_algae-reproduce.html
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