Ice caves form beneath glaciers when melted glacial water runs through cracks and causes erosion in the glacier.
Glacier caves form mainly in two ways. The most common way is for a little bit of water to find its way into a glacier through a crack (called a moulin) in the ice. The water, being a little bit warmer than the surrounding ice, will melt a small channel through the ice as it runs. Once the channel is there, more water will find its way inside, and the process continues, thus eventually creating a large cavern. A second way that glacier caves are formed is through volcanic processes. A small volcanic heat source under a glacier will melt a portion of ice, and the runoff then creates the process I just described. This type of glacier cave is found most often in Iceland, which is one of the few places in the world which is both heavily glaciated and also a volcanic hot-spot.
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