How do they measure the water found on the moon?



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    They used an Ocean Optics spectrometer that measured the presence and quantity of water from excavated material.  The spectrometer uses wavelengths of light and specific absorbance of specific substances.  In this case, ionized water is visible at 619 nanometers (nm), and hydroxyl radicals at 308 nm.  The range of wavelengths covered by the spectrometer was is 270 to 650 nm, which accurately measured the water in the excavated material.  

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